todayinhistory:

August 28th 1955: Emmett Till murdered

On this day in 1955, the 14-year-old African-American boy Emmett Till was murdered in Mississippi. While visiting family in the state, Till allegedly flirted with the young white shopkeeper Carolyn Bryant while buying candy. Bryant told her husband and a few nights later he and his half-brother abducted Till and brutally tortured and murdered him. His mutilated body was found three days later in the Tallahatchie river; Till’s face was unrecognisable, but he was identified by the ring he wore engraved with his father’s initials that his mother gave him before he left for Mississppi. The viciousness of this unprovoked, racially-motivated crime sent shockwaves throughout the nation. The case drew attention to the oppression of African-Americans throughout the nation and provided a name and a face to the threat of lynching. Till’s mother Mamie, a highly educated woman who went on to become a devoted fighter for African-American equality, insisted on an open-casket funeral in order to show the world what was done to her young son. Thousands attended the funeral and thousands more saw the horrific images of Till’s body. Due to the fierce reactions the murder had engendered it was a particularly painful, but sadly expected, outcome when the all-white jury in Mississippi acquitted Till’s killers, despite Till’s great-uncle openly identifying them in court. A few months later the killers, now protected by double jeopardy laws, sold their story to Look magazine and openly confessed to the murder in chilling detail. Taking place a year after the Supreme Court outlawed school segregation in Brown v. Board of Education, the outrage over the murder galvanised the burgeoning Civil Rights Movement. 100 days after Emmett Till’s murder Rosa Parks, on her way back from a rally for Till hosted by the then-unknown Martin Luther King Jr., refused to give up her seat for a white man on an Alabama bus. This sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott, thus beginning the movement that would result in the dismantling of the system of Jim Crow segregation and win successes in promoting African-American social and political equality.

Today we rally in Springfield in solidarity with the people of Ferguson, with the family of Mike Brown and every single person of color terrorized and killed by the police in this country.

Hurriya to Gaza
From Ferguson to Gaza, solidarity

http://www.facebook.com/events/521270791336616/

Tomorrow night at 7pm NoHo city hall from #Ferguson to #Gaza no more state sanctioned terrorism. Organized by the AFSC & Western MA Coalition for Palestine

Tomorrow night at 7pm NoHo city hall from #Ferguson to #Gaza no more state sanctioned terrorism. Organized by the AFSC & Western MA Coalition for Palestine

openlyawesome:

August 18, 2014

image

August 19, 2014

image

To Catch a Musim

thepeoplesrecord:

Palestinians express solidarity with the people of FergusonAugust 17, 2014
We the undersigned Palestinian individuals and groups express our solidarity with the family of Michael Brown, a young unarmed black man gunned down by police on August 9th in Ferguson, Missouri. We wish to express our support and solidarity with the people of Ferguson who have taken their struggle to the street, facing a militarized police occupation.
From all factions and sectors of our dislocated society, we send you our commitment to stand with you in your hour of pain and time of struggle against the oppression that continues to target our black brothers and sisters in nearly every aspect of their lives.
We understand your moral outrage. We empathize with your hurt and anger. We understand the impulse to rebel against the infrastructure of a racist capitalist system that systematically pushes you to the margins of humanity.  
And we stand with you.
We recognize the disregard and disrespect for black bodies and black life endemic to the supremacist system that rules the land with wanton brutality. Your struggles through the ages have been an inspiration to us as we fight our own battles for basic human dignities. We continue to find inspiration and strength from your struggles through the ages and your revolutionary leaders, like Malcolm X, Huey Newton, Kwame Ture, Angela Davis, Fred Hampton, Bobby Seale and others.
We honor the life of Michael Brown, cut short less than a week before he was due to begin university.  And we honor the far too many more killed in similar circumstances, motivated by racism and contempt for black life: Ezell Ford, John Crawford, Eric Garner, Trayvon Martin, Tarika Wilson, Malcolm Ferguson, Renisha McBride, Amadou Diallo, Yvette Smith, Oscar Grant, Sean Bell, Kathryn Johnston, Rekia Boyd and too many others to count.
With a Black Power fist in the air, we salute the people of Ferguson and join in your demands for justice.
Signatories
Susan Abulhawa, novelist and activist
Linah Alsaafin, graduate student, SOAS
Budour Hassan
Rinad Abdulla, Professor, Birzeit University
Ramzy Baroud, Managing Editor, Middle East Eye
Diana Buttu, Lawyer, Palestine
Rana Baker, graduate student, SOAS
Abbas Hamideh, activist and organizer
Abir Kopty
Ahlam Muhtaseb, Professor, CSU
Alaa Milbes, Ramallah, Palestine
Alaa Marwan, Ramallah, Palestine
Nour Joudah, Washington DC
Ali Zbeidat, Sakhnin, Palestine
Areej Alragabi , Jerusalem, Palestine
Areej Saeb, student, Jerusalem
Asma Jaber
Beesan Ramadan, Nablus
Dina Zbidat, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Dr Jess Ghannam, UCSF
Huwaida Arraf, Attorney, New York
Nejma Awad, Tetra Tech DPK
Monadel Herzallah, USPCN, San Francisco Bay Area
Ghassan Hussein
Dinna Omar
Randa C. Issa
Amal Khoury, MD MPH, Washington, DC
Amani Barakat Moorpark, California
Fadi Quran 
Fajr Harb
Falastine Dwikat, PCACBI
Hala Gabriel
Khaled Jarrar
Osama Ahmad, AMP Bay Area director
Hala Turjman
Halla Shoaibi, Birzeit University
Harun Arsalai  
Zaid Shuaibi
Hurriyah Ziada
Dima Eleiwa, Shujaiyah, Gaza, Palestine
Jamil Salem, Birzeit University
Karam Saleem, International Solidarity Movement, Palestine
Khaled Barakat
Khuzama Hanoon, Palestine
Laila Awartani, Ramallah, Palestine
Lana Habash, Let’s Go There Collective
Lana Khoury, Washington DC
Yousef Aljamal, University of Malaysia 
Safwan Hamdi
Leena Barakat
Lema Nazeeh, lawyer
Yara Kayyali Abbas, Palestine
Mariam Barghouti, Birzeit University
Mohammad Ayyad, graduate student, SOAS
Nader Elkhuzundar
Nancy Mansour, Existence is Resistance, New York/Palestine
Mohammed Alkhader, Birzeit University
Nazik Hassan, attorney, Riverside, California
Nora Taha
Rena Zuabi
Roleen Tafakji-Haidami
Samera Sood
Sana Ibrahim
Sherene Seikaly, UCSB
Taher Herzallah
Tamara Reem, Washington DC
Ahmad Nimer, Palestine
Riya Al’sanah, journalist, London
Alaa Milbes, Ramallah
Belal Dabour, Gaza doctor
Huda Asfour, PhD, Durham NC
Iyad Afalqa, Irvine, CA
Ruba Leech, Portland, OR
Rashad Al-Dabbagh, Network of Arab American Professionals
Maysoon Suleiman-Khatib, Civil Rights Specialist
Diana Alzeer, Ramallah, Palestine
Mona Kadah, Boston MA
Lucy Garbett, Jerusalem, Palestine
Hadeel Assali, Columbia University, NYC
Magid Shihade, Oakland, CA
Tamara Tamimi, Palestine
Hammam Farah, psychotherapist and editor
Dina Elmuti, Treatment and Rehabilitation Center for Victims of Torture
Laila Hamdan, Portland OR
Bushra Shamma, VA, USA
Rev. Fahed Abuakel, Presbyterian minister , Atlanta, GA
Rehab Nazzal, artist, Canada
Ezees Silwady, Palestine
Dua’ Nakhala, freelance researcher, Belgium
Amal Oweis, Palestine
Shaheen Nassar, UCR
Amin Dallal, youth counselor
Dr. Tariq Shadid, surgeon
Zaha Hassan, Esq
Randa Issa, PhD
Murad Saleh, GED
Lila Sharif, Ph.D
Sa’ed Atshan, Ph.D
Rasha Khoury, MD Jerusalem
Hadeel Assali, Columbia University, NYC
Rabab Ibrahim Abdulhadi, Associate Professor of Race and Resistance Studies, San Francisco University
Tanya Keilani
Shahd Abusalama
Organizations
American Muslims for Palestine
Free Amer Jubran Campaign
International Solidarity Movement, Palestine
Let’s Go There Collective
Samidoun Palestinian Prisoner Solidarity Network
Students for Justice in Palestine, University of New Mexico
The Campaign to Free Ahmad Sa’adat
Bay Area Intifada, Bay Area
PAWA, Palestinian American Women Association
NSJP, National Students for Justice in Palestine
Americans United for Palestinian Human Rights
Mashjar Juthour, Palestine
Harvard Palestine Solidarity Committee
Al-Awda NY, the Palestine Right to Return Coalition 
Stop the Wall
The US Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel
SourcePhoto: Hamde Abu expresses solidarity with Ferguson.

thepeoplesrecord:

Palestinians express solidarity with the people of Ferguson
August 17, 2014

We the undersigned Palestinian individuals and groups express our solidarity with the family of Michael Brown, a young unarmed black man gunned down by police on August 9th in Ferguson, Missouri. We wish to express our support and solidarity with the people of Ferguson who have taken their struggle to the street, facing a militarized police occupation.

From all factions and sectors of our dislocated society, we send you our commitment to stand with you in your hour of pain and time of struggle against the oppression that continues to target our black brothers and sisters in nearly every aspect of their lives.

We understand your moral outrage. We empathize with your hurt and anger. We understand the impulse to rebel against the infrastructure of a racist capitalist system that systematically pushes you to the margins of humanity.  

And we stand with you.

We recognize the disregard and disrespect for black bodies and black life endemic to the supremacist system that rules the land with wanton brutality. Your struggles through the ages have been an inspiration to us as we fight our own battles for basic human dignities. We continue to find inspiration and strength from your struggles through the ages and your revolutionary leaders, like Malcolm X, Huey Newton, Kwame Ture, Angela Davis, Fred Hampton, Bobby Seale and others.

We honor the life of Michael Brown, cut short less than a week before he was due to begin university.  And we honor the far too many more killed in similar circumstances, motivated by racism and contempt for black life: Ezell Ford, John Crawford, Eric Garner, Trayvon Martin, Tarika Wilson, Malcolm Ferguson, Renisha McBride, Amadou Diallo, Yvette Smith, Oscar Grant, Sean Bell, Kathryn Johnston, Rekia Boyd and too many others to count.

With a Black Power fist in the air, we salute the people of Ferguson and join in your demands for justice.

Signatories

  • Susan Abulhawa, novelist and activist
  • Linah Alsaafin, graduate student, SOAS
  • Budour Hassan
  • Rinad Abdulla, Professor, Birzeit University
  • Ramzy Baroud, Managing Editor, Middle East Eye
  • Diana Buttu, Lawyer, Palestine
  • Rana Baker, graduate student, SOAS
  • Abbas Hamideh, activist and organizer
  • Abir Kopty
  • Ahlam Muhtaseb, Professor, CSU
  • Alaa Milbes, Ramallah, Palestine
  • Alaa Marwan, Ramallah, Palestine
  • Nour Joudah, Washington DC
  • Ali Zbeidat, Sakhnin, Palestine
  • Areej Alragabi , Jerusalem, Palestine
  • Areej Saeb, student, Jerusalem
  • Asma Jaber
  • Beesan Ramadan, Nablus
  • Dina Zbidat, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Dr Jess Ghannam, UCSF
  • Huwaida Arraf, Attorney, New York
  • Nejma Awad, Tetra Tech DPK
  • Monadel Herzallah, USPCN, San Francisco Bay Area
  • Ghassan Hussein
  • Dinna Omar
  • Randa C. Issa
  • Amal Khoury, MD MPH, Washington, DC
  • Amani Barakat Moorpark, California
  • Fadi Quran 
  • Fajr Harb
  • Falastine Dwikat, PCACBI
  • Hala Gabriel
  • Khaled Jarrar
  • Osama Ahmad, AMP Bay Area director
  • Hala Turjman
  • Halla Shoaibi, Birzeit University
  • Harun Arsalai  
  • Zaid Shuaibi
  • Hurriyah Ziada
  • Dima Eleiwa, Shujaiyah, Gaza, Palestine
  • Jamil Salem, Birzeit University
  • Karam Saleem, International Solidarity Movement, Palestine
  • Khaled Barakat
  • Khuzama Hanoon, Palestine
  • Laila Awartani, Ramallah, Palestine
  • Lana Habash, Let’s Go There Collective
  • Lana Khoury, Washington DC
  • Yousef Aljamal, University of Malaysia 
  • Safwan Hamdi
  • Leena Barakat
  • Lema Nazeeh, lawyer
  • Yara Kayyali Abbas, Palestine
  • Mariam Barghouti, Birzeit University
  • Mohammad Ayyad, graduate student, SOAS
  • Nader Elkhuzundar
  • Nancy Mansour, Existence is Resistance, New York/Palestine
  • Mohammed Alkhader, Birzeit University
  • Nazik Hassan, attorney, Riverside, California
  • Nora Taha
  • Rena Zuabi
  • Roleen Tafakji-Haidami
  • Samera Sood
  • Sana Ibrahim
  • Sherene Seikaly, UCSB
  • Taher Herzallah
  • Tamara Reem, Washington DC
  • Ahmad Nimer, Palestine
  • Riya Al’sanah, journalist, London
  • Alaa Milbes, Ramallah
  • Belal Dabour, Gaza doctor
  • Huda Asfour, PhD, Durham NC
  • Iyad Afalqa, Irvine, CA
  • Ruba Leech, Portland, OR
  • Rashad Al-Dabbagh, Network of Arab American Professionals
  • Maysoon Suleiman-Khatib, Civil Rights Specialist
  • Diana Alzeer, Ramallah, Palestine
  • Mona Kadah, Boston MA
  • Lucy Garbett, Jerusalem, Palestine
  • Hadeel Assali, Columbia University, NYC
  • Magid Shihade, Oakland, CA
  • Tamara Tamimi, Palestine
  • Hammam Farah, psychotherapist and editor
  • Dina Elmuti, Treatment and Rehabilitation Center for Victims of Torture
  • Laila Hamdan, Portland OR
  • Bushra Shamma, VA, USA
  • Rev. Fahed Abuakel, Presbyterian minister , Atlanta, GA
  • Rehab Nazzal, artist, Canada
  • Ezees Silwady, Palestine
  • Dua’ Nakhala, freelance researcher, Belgium
  • Amal Oweis, Palestine
  • Shaheen Nassar, UCR
  • Amin Dallal, youth counselor
  • Dr. Tariq Shadid, surgeon
  • Zaha Hassan, Esq
  • Randa Issa, PhD
  • Murad Saleh, GED
  • Lila Sharif, Ph.D
  • Sa’ed Atshan, Ph.D
  • Rasha Khoury, MD Jerusalem
  • Hadeel Assali, Columbia University, NYC
  • Rabab Ibrahim Abdulhadi, Associate Professor of Race and Resistance Studies, San Francisco University
  • Tanya Keilani
  • Shahd Abusalama

Organizations

  • American Muslims for Palestine
  • Free Amer Jubran Campaign
  • International Solidarity Movement, Palestine
  • Let’s Go There Collective
  • Samidoun Palestinian Prisoner Solidarity Network
  • Students for Justice in Palestine, University of New Mexico
  • The Campaign to Free Ahmad Sa’adat
  • Bay Area Intifada, Bay Area
  • PAWA, Palestinian American Women Association
  • NSJP, National Students for Justice in Palestine
  • Americans United for Palestinian Human Rights
  • Mashjar Juthour, Palestine
  • Harvard Palestine Solidarity Committee
  • Al-Awda NY, the Palestine Right to Return Coalition 
  • Stop the Wall
  • The US Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel

Source
Photo: Hamde Abu expresses solidarity with Ferguson.

Apparently KKK members are walking around Ferguson and burning Crosses tonight. This and a post from one of the blogs I follow is all the evidence that I could gather on the subject, seeing as the police are not allowing news stations to record the matter. I’m really hoping that the information is false at this point but still I want all the people in Ferguson to stay safe and know that your in my prayers.

If anybody has some extra information on this matter, please add on to the post.

(Source: cosmixoracle)

medievalpoc:

jonomancer:

Brahmagupta, Indian mathematician (598 - 670), known as the “inventor of zero”. Picture from findinsideindia.com.
Brahmagupta was head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain, a holy city in the Malwa region of central India. (Ujjain has been a center of learning since ancient times, and is known in Hindu tradition as the place where Krishna went to receive his education. The observatory of Ujjain was considered the prime meridian, as Greenwich England is today, making it the baseline for all astronomical observations.)From his observations he deduced that the moon is closer to the earth than the sun is, and that the earth and heavenly bodies are all spheres. His calculation of the length of the solar year is accurate to within about half an hour! But Brahmagupta is best known for his mathematical writings, and especially for developing the concept of zero as a number.In his great work Brahmasphutasiddhanta (“The Opening of the Universe”), Brahmagupta wrote:    When zero is added to a number or subtracted from a number, the number remains unchanged; and a number multiplied by zero becomes zero. Previous schoars had used various symbols as placeholders to show the lack of a number or digit. Brahmagupta was the first to treat zero as a number in its own right, something that could be used in calculations along with other numbers. In doing so, he extended the rules of arithmetic from the natural numbers to what we now call the integers, including zero and negative numbers. Here’s more rules from the Brahmasphutasiddhanta:    A debt minus zero is a debt.    A fortune minus zero is a fortune.    Zero minus zero is a zero.    A debt subtracted from zero is a fortune.    A fortune subtracted from zero is a debt.    The product of zero multiplied by a debt or fortune is zero.    The product of zero multipliedby zero is zero.    The product or quotient of two fortunes is one fortune.    The product or quotient of two debts is one fortune.    The product or quotient of a debt and a fortune is a debt.    The product or quotient of a fortune and a debt is a debt.(“Fortune” and “Debt” were Brahmagupta’s quite descriptive terms for what we’d now call positive and negative numbers.)This is one of those ideas that’s so simple that, from our vantage point centuries later, it’s hard to imagine anyone not understanding it, but people had been struggling along without zero for centuries. It must have taken a stroke of genius to realize that “nothing” is something!But he didn’t stop with negative numbers! The Brahmasphutasiddhanta also contains methods for:- Finding square roots, using an algorithm that Newton would rediscover centuries later!- Solving quadratic equations!- Trigonometry, including tables of sines and cosines!- Summing series of squares and cubes- Finding the area of cyclic quadrilateralsHis work holds up extremely well today. His approximation of Pi was correct to within a few hundredths. About the only place where modern mathematicians would disagree with Brahmagupta is his statement that 0 divided by 0 is 0, where today we leave division by zero undefined.Sources:http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Brahmagupta.htmlhttp://www.famous-mathematicians.com/brahmagupta/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmagupta

Math and Science Week!

medievalpoc:

jonomancer:

Brahmagupta, Indian mathematician (598 - 670), known as the “inventor of zero”. Picture from findinsideindia.com.

Brahmagupta was head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain, a holy city in the Malwa region of central India. (Ujjain has been a center of learning since ancient times, and is known in Hindu tradition as the place where Krishna went to receive his education. The observatory of Ujjain was considered the prime meridian, as Greenwich England is today, making it the baseline for all astronomical observations.)

From his observations he deduced that the moon is closer to the earth than the sun is, and that the earth and heavenly bodies are all spheres. His calculation of the length of the solar year is accurate to within about half an hour! But Brahmagupta is best known for his mathematical writings, and especially for developing the concept of zero as a number.

In his great work Brahmasphutasiddhanta (“The Opening of the Universe”), Brahmagupta wrote:

    When zero is added to a number or subtracted from a number, the number remains unchanged; and a number multiplied by zero becomes zero.

Previous schoars had used various symbols as placeholders to show the lack of a number or digit. Brahmagupta was the first to treat zero as a number in its own right, something that could be used in calculations along with other numbers. In doing so, he extended the rules of arithmetic from the natural numbers to what we now call the integers, including zero and negative numbers. Here’s more rules from the Brahmasphutasiddhanta:

    A debt minus zero is a debt.
    A fortune minus zero is a fortune.
    Zero minus zero is a zero.
    A debt subtracted from zero is a fortune.
    A fortune subtracted from zero is a debt.
    The product of zero multiplied by a debt or fortune is zero.
    The product of zero multipliedby zero is zero.
    The product or quotient of two fortunes is one fortune.
    The product or quotient of two debts is one fortune.
    The product or quotient of a debt and a fortune is a debt.
    The product or quotient of a fortune and a debt is a debt.

(“Fortune” and “Debt” were Brahmagupta’s quite descriptive terms for what we’d now call positive and negative numbers.)

This is one of those ideas that’s so simple that, from our vantage point centuries later, it’s hard to imagine anyone not understanding it, but people had been struggling along without zero for centuries. It must have taken a stroke of genius to realize that “nothing” is something!

But he didn’t stop with negative numbers! The Brahmasphutasiddhanta also contains methods for:

- Finding square roots, using an algorithm that Newton would rediscover centuries later!
- Solving quadratic equations!
- Trigonometry, including tables of sines and cosines!
- Summing series of squares and cubes
- Finding the area of cyclic quadrilaterals

His work holds up extremely well today. His approximation of Pi was correct to within a few hundredths. About the only place where modern mathematicians would disagree with Brahmagupta is his statement that 0 divided by 0 is 0, where today we leave division by zero undefined.

Sources:
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Brahmagupta.html
http://www.famous-mathematicians.com/brahmagupta/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmagupta

Math and Science Week!

'But the state of Israel was not created for the salvation of the Jews; it was created for the salvation of the Western interests. This is what is becoming clear (I must say that it was always clear to me).'

thatonesuheirhammad:

james baldwin.

September 29, 1979, issue of The Nation.

thatonesuheirhammad:

oya. maria g.alemanno.

thatonesuheirhammad:

oya. maria g.alemanno.

nagasaki day